Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco, Amihan Bonifacio-Ramolete, Cutud’s Ritual of Nailing on the Cross: Performance of Pain and Suffering, «Asian Theatre Journal», 3, 2008, pp. 30I do not assume, that in the theatre practice, which tends to be political, revolutionary and calling for social and/or governmental changes there is no space left for the individual identity of a particular actor, director or playwright. ), and the second one, the individual identity (of one actor/one particular performance group), where all of those three kinds of theatre traditions exist. Considering the fact that the Philippine nation still needs to deal with its postcolonial identity, terms, such as “theatre” or “actor”, based on the Western cultural tradition, cannot be easily taken for granted. It is at the crossroads of the sacred and the profane, orality and the written word, of inner roots and external adjuncts. Join now. 22The Catholic ritual of pabasa is the chanting/reading of life, passion, death and resurrection of Christ, which take place during the Holy Week.12 Most of the time it is organised by local religious organizations, performed either by two chanters or two groups of chanters. 37The social and political commitment requires from artists to focus rather on the collaborative goal, and to shape together the group identity, then to centre upon his/her own shine. Ballet Manila stages Rebel, a ballet choreographed by London-based Martin Lawrence, in collaboration with musical director Gerard Salonga. The paper explores a few cases in the Western world and concludes that theatre has great influence as a communication tool in Western society. Her Ph.D. dissertation considers eroticism as an aesthetic in contemporary art and culture. SANA PO MAY SUMAGOT ;(, n. Identify the geometric shapes in the figure below., The government has implemented quarantine measures to limit activities outside their home. 2. 23Moreover, especially in recent years, people try to change the old tradition and to make it more suitable for the younger generation. The ritual practitioners in their dance-dramas used imitative dances to propitiate the continue reading → Marcos was strongly supported by American government, but in the same time within twenty-three years he created his own regime. Performs selections from musical plays, ballet, opera in a satisfactory level of performance. why do you say so?, what is media literacy, and why is it important? 3. 20Besides many other reasons, those who prepare and who participate in sacral performances try to express their religious commitment and to follow the tradition, which bond together a particular community. According to Pamela Del Rosario Castrillo: the multidimensional language of the theater is used [in the 1960s] to improvise oppressive situations they find themselves in and search for alternatives. As long as it is assumed as a group activity, it should be considered by every member as his/her personal vow. influences that shaped it through the centuries. 1. 9James F. Kenny in Tagalog Movies and Identity. the Philippines and Iraq belongs to the same aesthetic system. Philippine Theatre I43 are essentially light operas in prose, and while the Filipino versions, which were written and performed in Spanish as well as various Filipino languages, kept the musical and dance aspects, the characters were all converted into familiar local types. 40. Classical theater play and opera. Anyone who lived (even for a short period of time) in the Philippines might have caught a glimpse of a particular tendency. 19 Pamela Del Rosario Castrillo, Philippine Political Theater… cit., p. 530. The comedia. A Critique on the Asian-ness/Philippine-ness of Philippine Theatre(s) is, in my personal opinion, one of the most important voices in the contemporary discussion about the identity of Filipino theatre. 42. 3. In 1898, the first bodabil was produced by the Manila Dramatic Guild for the sole purpose of entertaining American soldiers and other Americans residing in Manila. 6 Cfr. In much of today’s mainstream Western theatre, we have forgotten theatre’s relationship to religion or reduced it to cliché representations. 2. A similar trend can be observed e.g. Filipino American theater ranges from topics such as Filipino/Filipino-American history to modern Filipino issues. When everyone became a hero and changed Philippine history overnight. This drama became for the local community a foundation for a performance, in which one can participate also today. 18However, theatre forms like the Passion play re-enactment, or the pabasa (reading/chanting of the Passion) might be considered as the “inheritance” of Spanish colonization, we should not forget about its postcolonial identity, so also its inner diversity and the tension of the “Philippine-nesses” included. The postcoloniality might preconceive that particular tradition is a kind of amalgamation, where original roots have been changed and influenced under hundred years of foreign colonial rules. Maria Luisa F. Torres, Brecht and the Philippines: anticipating freedom in theater, in John Fuegi (ed. This way, they become aware of the manifestations of an unjust social order and are able to articulate a longing for justice and faith in change. To rise up a question, if something is “authentic” or “polluted”, is supposed to mean, that someone is able to set up the intransgressible features of a particular culture. OpenEdition Journals member – Published with Lodel – Administration only, You will be redirected to OpenEdition Search, The actor in the identity shaping process, Rivista semestrale di studi sulla vita e le forme del teatro, Publication Ethics and Publication Malpractice Statement, A digital resources portal for the humanities and social sciences, http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20090407-198285/Pabasa-is-for-medit, http://ask.metafilter.com/145758/Can-I-really-become-famous-in-the-Philippines, http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20090407-198285/Pabasa-is-for-meditating-not-loud-wailing, Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 4.0 Internazionale, Catalogue of 552 journals. Theater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historical. However, in 1961 Navarro decided to intensify his panata (the religious vow) by performing during the sinakulo the self-flagellation (pamagdarame). Sacral performances refer to religious rituals and the religious vow, to the sacral sphere of “communication” with God. Similarly, Ballet Philippines (BP) opened its 51st season via BP OnStream last month. In the same time, even if we discuss the “common good”, the artistic freedom does not have to be limited. 25The decision to deepen the religious vow may be considered as the transgression of the tradition. The fight did not only concern the decolonization process (from Spain and later from USA), but also more domestic problems, e.g. Kenton J. Clymer, Protestant Missionaries in the Philippines, 1898-1916. 21 Cfr. 11 In this context the term “performer” or “doer” should be understood in the meaning proposed e.g. Then, after the process of decolonization, identity must be re-established and rebuilt on the new foundation, where even the most simple question, such as «what our past does contain?», may provoke particular problems. I would rather prefer to speak about the “theatricality”, the notion of culture shown by the theatre pieces. PHILIPPINE THEATER. 12 In every region it may be performed on a different day during Semana Santa. Back to Article List ARSENIO “BOOTS” BAUTISTA Philippine Theater Before the Advent of Cinema Long before the coming of cinema in the Philippines, theater originated in the culture of the country’s early societies. In this article I proposed the distinction between the group identity and the individual identity, being aware of the fact that both of them stay in a constant dependency and each of them negotiates its own importance. Overwhelmingly successful, it was performed successively for more than a week with Governor William H. How did western operas influence philippine theater? The study is exploratory and introductory in nature. PETA has always been concerned rather as a theatre group than a constellation of Filipino stars. 7One of the most difficult questions is how the “actor” is categorized and understood in the context of Philippine theatre. 3I would like to propose in this article a different perspective, a discussion on two kinds of Philippine theatre identities: the first one, the group identity (national, social, political etc. of Brecht (Philippine Educational Theater Association’s translations of The Good Woman of Setzuan, The Caucasian Chalk Circle, The Life of Galileo), but rather as the effect of a long-time process of adaptation, reinterpretation and application of foreign theatre concepts in the field of a local theatre. 1. 13Even though one would like to distinguish the original “Philippine-ness” or “Filipino self”, or to find out “the Filipino roots”, it should not been forgotten that every culture is shaped in a long-time process; it is not an artefact, a “monument” – once designed and set up – but it is always performed by a particular group of people, in an intensively changed and vivid process, very responsive to social, political and economic tensions. Background. 19In my personal opinion, one of the most important foundation for Filipino society is the need for solidarity and cooperation in micro and macro-communities. 7 Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco, Situating Philippine Theatricality… cit. Of course, I do not claim that in Filipino society there is no space left for individualism, but in this case, I would like to emphasize the importance of the community notion. The themes for these works were mostly influenced by the Spanish colonial rule as well as the American colonization.. Philippine theater is composed of pre-colonial performance traditions as well as colonial influences from Spain and the USA. 16 However, we should consider the fact that also within three years of Japanese occupation (1942-1945) there was plenty of Filipino theatre plays, which became a significant voice against the political oppression of Japan. However, in this post colonial climate most Filipinos’ sense of a “truly” Filipino self remains dubious at best and many have found the task of self-discovery elusive. As long as one of the main features of the tradition is its inner resistance for too precipitate changes, it stays alive only when it responses to the present reality. Performs selections from musical plays, ballet, opera in a satisfactory level of performance. Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco, Situating Philippine Theatricality in Asia. I do believe there is plenty of tensions between the group identity and the individual identity, and each must be seen as the important element of the second one. English. However, the desire to look as mestizo/mestiza should be seen in the contemporary context rather than as a cultural tendency. 11I personally believe, that any kind of “searching for the authenticity” is a very tricky attitude, especially in the postcolonial (and highly globalized) world, where many traditions interfere. What is the most coveted is the fair skin. The ritual practitioners in their dance-dramas used imitative dances to propitiate the continue reading → However, the biggest input, I would argue, should be rather seen in the intellectual inspiration, in the new way of thinking about theatre as an important tool in the fight for political and social changes. 18 The term was used by Pamela Del Rosario Castrillo to describe the Filipino theatre movement and the plays staged in 1965-1968. Choreograph the movement and gestures needed for the effective delivery of a selected piece from Western Classical play and opera… 36However, the PETA’s educational impact in contemporary Filipino culture is incontrovertible, in the context of this particular article the question of the individual identity of those artists, who created their performances in Dulaang Rajah Sulayman, or later in the PETA Theater Center,23 should be risen up. It roots its foundation in the use of theater that is distinctly Filipino as a tool for social change and development. In the 1960s and 70s opera became a very expensive art form to put on, and "difficult" new opera, which inevitably attracted smaller audiences, was more expensive still. b. how the country and the nation should be leaded after the overthrow of Marcos’ rule. Realism in the last half of the 19 th-century began as an experiment to make theater more useful to society.The mainstream theatre from 1859 to 1900 was still bound up in melodramas, spectacle plays (disasters, etc. 23 Rajah Sulayman was the open theatre in the ruins in the Fort Santiago in Intramuros, Metro Manila (in the past Spanish military barracks). On the market there is a whole range of cosmetic products – soaps, creams, make-up foundation – which make the skin brighter. The American influence on Philippine theatre is found in what was then called bodabil, in the Western plays staged in the original English or in English translation, and in the original plays written by Filipinos in English and in Philippine languages and produced by contemporary theatre groups, using such styles as theatre of the absurd, epic theatre, expressionism, and various forms of realism. The American … Each performer tries to create a piece of art, not only for God, but also for the whole community. One of the most curious examples is the rap version of performing the pabasa.13, 24Another case is the sinakulo (named also cenakulo or senákulo), a Filipino traditional Passion play, performed in the majority of Catholic communities during the Semana Santa (the Holy Week). The comedia. 2Most scholars (both in the Philippines and in foreign countries), who try to describe Philippine theatre, divide those dramas and performances into three groups: the indigenous theatre, the theatre based/founded on Spanish colonization, and the theatre influenced (in the 20th century) by the Americans.1. ), Brecht in Asia and Africa, University of Hong Kong, Hong Kong 1989, pp. Portrayals of the Filipino Self, «The Humanities Bulletin», 4, 1995, p. 108. c. Event, Does the writer use scholarly evidence or reference, what is your favorite advertisement?explain why it is your favorite advertisement and the reasons why you think the advertisement is effective.. The Philippines were first colonized by Spain (1565-1898) and later (in the 20th century) by the USA. - 294453 In 2011 made additional theater and cultural fieldwork in the Philippines (mostly on Luzon) to finalize her M.A. For decades, it competed with film, radio and television as the dominant form of Filipino mass entertainment. The personal choice of Ricardo Navarro, however negotiated within the community, has completely changed the way of thinking how the Good Friday is supposed to be celebrated. 15 Pamela Del Rosario Castrillo, Philippine Political Theater: 1946-1985, «Philippine Studies», 4 1994, p. 532. Whatever indigenous theatrical forms may have existed in the Philippines, other than tribal epic recitations, were obliterated by the Spanish to facilitate the spread of Christianity.. influences that shaped it through the centuries. 8. Their theatron was on the ground within the community. - 2739412 1. Demonstrates understanding of characteristic features of 20th and 21st century opera, musical play, ballet, and other multimedia forms. Mimesis Journal è distribuito con Licenza Creative Commons Attribuzione - Non commerciale - Non opere derivate 4.0 Internazionale. Show the influences of Western Classical plays or opera on Philippine theatrical performance in terms of form and content of story. The Philippines. Make a weekly schedule of how you spent each day in aweek as you start your self learning schooling in the new normal using table, how do you practice media literacy? According to Tiatco: the theoretical discourse must not be based on a construction of a Philippine theatre identity or the reconstruction of a Philippine theatre identity but on the affirmation of Philippine theatre identities. But all-original Filipino musicals proved that local talent can shine just as bright. PHILIPPINE THEATER Theater in the Philippines is as varied as the cultural traditions and the historical influences that shaped it through the centuries. These measures vary from one place to another considering t The future of Philippine theater is a bright one, but only if the industry as hosts and we as an audience make the right moves to make it happen. First, the style of European plays, frequently that of ... that may not be theatre at all as the Western world understands it. Until now, PETA has created ca. Cfr. How did western operas influence philippine theater? However, this kind of questioning the “postcolonial identity” assumes that the contemporary culture might be seen as the “authentic” one or, on the other hand, “polluted” by foreign influences.3. 1. PHILIPPINE THEATER AND DRAMA Plays with Spanish Influence The New Sarswela Comedia/Komedya Zarsuela/Sarsuela *drama as tool for Christianization *drama as pedagogical tool *drama to attract people to the pueblos Predramatic Forms loas, declamaciones, oraciones - … Join now. 34In the context of questioning the national self-identity, as well as about the tension between the individual and the group artistic identity, Cecile Guidote-Alvarez, the Filipino “culture caregiver”, might be a good example. http://newsinfo.inquirer.net/inquirerheadlines/nation/view/20090407-198285/Pabasa-is-for-meditating-not-loud-wailing, accessed on 02.11.2013. 6Moreover, in this article the term “theatre” will not only refer to particular plays staged in official theatre buildings in the Philippines. 50 points How did western operas influence philippine theater? Foreign performers, including instrumental virtuosi, as well as opera singers and Spanish zarzuela performers came to the country to perform for enthusiastic audiences. 41. The company has lived by this principle as it continues to evolve with the changes that have occurred within and around it. western influences on philippine art 1. a) Josef Luciano Dans(1805-1888) is the artist whose mural is now one of the most important and oldest murals that survived the test of time in the Phillipines. 13 Cfr. Most of the famous Filipinos – especially actors who work in television productions (the “Pilipino stars”) – tend to have a particular appearance. in Europe, even if Europeans behave in a quite opposite way, most of the people try to be as much suntanned as possible. ASAP SANA MAY SUMAGOT ;(, how important is media literacy to you as a student?, Is the language used formal or informal? The following year, Tatang Temyong became the first Filipino who crucified himself and in the next decades he has found many followers. 8In the postcolonial reality it is impossible to distinct the “original tradition” from the one “influenced” by foreign cultures. People in the Philippines used to say that they had spent 350 years in the convent and 50 years in Hollywood. After several centuries of being dominated and ruled by Spanish, and later American colonizers, who not only tried to set up their own religion as the major one (with Spain Catholicism, with the USA mostly Protestantism),6 or some forms of culture expressions (e.g. But before I elaborate this issue, it must be underlined that, although particular items (costumes, a light-set, often a scenery) used in sacral performances refer to the theatre tradition, we should be aware, that the “doer”/“performer”11 cannot be easily considered just as the theatre “actor”. 10 I had the chance to participate in both of them during the Holy Week in 2009 and 2011. 14The second half of the 20th century (especially after the fall of Marcos government in 1986)5 was the time when many Philippine scholars and artists started to ask about their national identity. PHILIPI IN THE J E P T H E L A D E RA S 1 0 A RC H I M E D E S The emergence of the Filipino opera started to take shape during the middle part of the 19th century. 3 Stars and a Sun runs from February 4 to March 26, Tuesday to Friday, 8 p.m., and Saturday to Sunday, 3 p.m. and 8 p.m. at the PETA Theater Center, 5 Eymard Drive, New Manila, Quezon City (725-6244).For more information, visit PETA’s website.. Rebel. thesis Crucifixions in San Fernando Cutud as a sacral performance. http://petatheater.com/about-peta/, accessed on 28.10.2013. Theatre and the popular operas, the former deriving from ... almost entirely to European influence. The Philippines – because of the difficult and complex history of the country – cannot be con-sidered in a binary differentiation: “Asian” vs. “Western”. 134-154. His article shows how the fact of being a postcolonial nation projects particular questions about the self-identity: Filipino academics and critics often speak of the need to project Filipino values and culture in their popular media. Therefore, it comments on present media reality in the Western world. Asian theater Vs. Western theater History of Asain theatre started off as rituals lots of old written plays Theater started off as hunting dances imitating animals Acrobats, clowns and dwarfs are often in the plays Lots of dance moves come from martial arts moves (kung-fu) Asian Philippine Opera Started in the Philippines during the 19th Century when Instrumental virtuosis, opera singers, and Spanish zarzuela performers came. There is a whole range of many other sacral performances, cultivated in non-Catholic Filipino communities, which might be as well described in the context of the tension between individual and group identities. In some places some measures implemented liqour bana. 2. English language has not been seen any more as the definitive choice for Filipino theatre makers as it was before. 7. Even though it is an activity of the whole community, in some cases we can find out that it turns into a kind of competition for the performers. Rewarded as the country’s National Artist in 2001, he was one of the most successful commercial figures on the local art scene from the 1960s until his death from cancer in 2005. OPERA. Nevertheless, for anyone who would like to discuss the issue of the Filipino contemporary theatre, the difficult and very complicated postcolonial history of the country appears as one of the main challenges. In 1986 the Philippines’ external debt exceeded $28.3 billion and in the same time the country was strongly corrupted. In 1967 this young Filipino woman, who studied in the USA, came back to her country and created one of the most significant Filipino theatre group ever. That means, what is more important in the political theatre, the individual or the group identity? More likely, however, is … Born to Chinese immigrants, Ang Kiukok is the pioneer of Philippine modern figurative expressionism. Junior High School. http://petatheater.com/about-peta/, accessed on 30.10.2013. Log in. It was also the first theatrical performance since the revolution. Their influence on Philippine theatre is most apparent through the bodabil (vaudeville) and the plays and dramas staged or translated into English. It was the time of the fight for national independence and in the same way the beginning of contemporary discussion on postcolonial Filipino identity. Demonstrates understanding of the relationship among music, technology, and media. 5 Ferdinand Marcos was the President of the Philippines (1965-1986). As language appears to be political, “Theatres in Asia” I guess is more apt in the nature of this discourse or the “theatres in the Philippines” in the case of the Philippines.7. Whatever indigenous theatrical forms may have existed in the Philippines, other than tribal epic recitations, were obliterated by the Spanish to facilitate the spread of Christianity.. However, I made the decision to focus on those examples, which I had a chance to observe while my staying in the Philippines. Opera is part of the Western classical music tradition. The Philippine Ballet Theatre pursues the goal of bringing the art of dance to the general appreciation of Filipino audiences. Back to Article List ARSENIO “BOOTS” BAUTISTA Philippine Theater Before the Advent of Cinema Long before the coming of cinema in the Philippines, theater originated in the culture of the country’s early societies. 29But if the main reason to create a political theatre is the social change, is there any space left for the actor to focus on his/her own identity? For Tiongson those «polluted theories» should be avoided in the process of reconceptualization of the contemporary Filipino culture. sarsuela, the USA actors’ style mostly shaped in Hollywood), but first of all: the language and the educational system. 26The 20th century in the Philippines has been strongly marked by political events. 1. In a sense Philippine recorded history and nationhood began with its colonizers. 4This essay does not tend to be a brief introduction, a full guide through Filipino §theatre traditions. The Filipino contemporary culture (in this case also theatre) can be seen as a great example for anyone who would like to speak about the postcolonial identity of the nation. 20 Cfr. 15Sir Anril Pineda Tiatco’s article Situating Philippine Theatricality in Asia. 31But of course Filipino political theatre did not end up by the time of the “seditious plays”.17 As I mentioned above, the second half of the 20th century (and the fight for full independence and democracy) should be also seen as a very crucial moment. Plays featured the labourer and farmer, slum dweller and scavenger using social realism, i.e., the mode that utilizes theater as a lecture platform for purposes of mass education.19. Vaudeville/bodabil in the Philippines, more commonly referred to as bodabil, was a popular genre of entertainment in the Philippines from the 1910s until the mid-1960s. The problem may indeed be that after four hundred years of domination the cultural conceptions and values of their former colonizers have become inextricably enmeshed in the national psyche. In 2005 PETA has moved into its new building, PETA Theater Center, located in Quezon City, Metro Manila. 9. 8 I decided to focus mostly on Catholic sacral performances, because of my personal experience, acquired during the theatre research conducted in the Philippines. He was famous for his anti-Japanese guerrilla activity during WWII, his presidency became one of the hardest time for the Philippines. For all of those artists, who worked together in those hundreds of performances, the common aim was to achieve social and/or political changes. : http://ask.metafilter.com/145758/Can-I-really-become-famous-in-the-Philippines, accessed on 25.10.2013. 58-76; Nicholas H. Barker, The Revival of Ritual Self-Flagellation and the Birth of Crucifixion in Lowland Christian Philippines, Nagoya University, Nagoya 1998. The actual content of the plays frequently dealt with keenly felt current The dramatic forms that flourished and continue to flourish among the different peoples First performed at the famed Teatro Zorilla on August 2, 1902, the opera was staged by the renowned Molina-Benito Company. Ph.D. candidate in Drama, Theater and Performance Department (Adam Mickiewicz University, Poznań, Poland). Maria Delimata, “Contemporary theatre in the Philippines”, Mimesis Journal [Online], 2, 2 | 2013, Online since 01 December 2013, connection on 07 January 2021. Some are performed as religious ritual, others, particularly on the Indonesian island of Bali, by highly trained and respected artists, and still another kind as entertainment in which the community participates. How did the philippine opera, ballet and musical plays reflect life in the 20th century? 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